C Interview Questions

Get ready for your C programming interview

Don't get blindsided in your C coding interview. String manipulation, null pointers, static, and diagnosing inconsistent buggy behavior...it's a lot. Try these practice questions and see how ready you are for the interview.

Icing on the Cake

Our freshly baked cake just came out of the oven, and while the cake is cooling, it's time to make the frosting. We've written some C code to help us figure out how much we'll need:

#define PI 3.14 #define AREA(r) PI * r * r float showIcingArea() { // initial guess at cake size, in feet float radius = 4.0; // that's a big cake! printf("Initial cake radius: %.2f Area: %.2f\n", radius, AREA(radius)); // make a little extra ... just to be sure printf("Slightly bigger cake radius: %.2f Area: %.2f\n", radius + 1, AREA(radius + 1)); return 0; }

But when we run this code, we see:

Initial cake radius: 4.00 Area 50.24 Slightly bigger cake radius: 5.00 Area 17.56

That's unexpected... what's going on here?

Our issue is with the macro expansion for AREA. When the C preprocessor expands macros, it drops the arguments directly into the macro definition. The first time, this is fine:

PI * radius * radius

But the second time, we get:

PI * radius + 1 * radius + 1

And since multiplication has higher precedence than addition, we actually calculated:

(PI * radius) + (1 * radius) + 1

Even though we meant to calculate:

PI * (radius + 1) * (radius + 1)

The most surefire way to make sure each argument sticks together when the macro is expanded is to wrap it in parentheses.

So, let's add them to our macro. Like this:

#define AREA(r) ((PI) * (r) * (r))

In addition to wrapping each argument in parentheses, we've also wrapped the entire macro definition. This ensures our definition sticks together, regardless of other operations around it.

Okay, but do we really need parentheses around PI?

In this code, we could get away with skipping them since we can see PI is a simple constant. But it's a good practice because now even if we change how or where we define PI, we don't have to worry about that macro.

For example another definition, correct to 3 decimal places, is:

#include <math.h> #define PI sqrtf(2.0) + sqrtf(3.0) // woops! forget parentheses

Language Transfer

Write the body of a function strReplace(src, old, new) that returns a copy of src but with the first occurrence of old replaced with new. For example:

char *dst = strReplace("My favorite language is Python", "Python", "C");

should result in dst pointing to a new string that contains "My favorite language is C".

String manipulation is notoriously tricky in C, so we'll want to build up an answer piece by piece. The question says we should return a copy of src, so we'll need to allocate memory.

Even just making sure we have the right amount of space can be tricky. Does strlen include the NUL terminator in its count?

Let's check the man pages:

$ man strlen ... RETURN VALUES The strlen() function returns the number of characters the precede the terminating NUL character.

So we need to add 1 to make sure we can NUL-terminate dst:

char *dst = malloc(sizeof(char) * (strlen(src) + 1)); // +1 for NUL terminator

One way to get our desired output is to copy all of src into dst and then overwrite old with new. Instead of rolling this code by hand ourselves, there are some useful string functions: strcpy for copying strings over and strstr for finding a substring in a string. Let's add those in:

char * strReplace(const char *src, const char *old, const char *new) { char *oldInDst = NULL; // allocate space for the new string char *dst = malloc(sizeof(char) * (strlen(src) + 1)); // +1 for NUL terminator assert(dst != NULL); // copy all of src into dst strcpy(dst, src); // find old inside dst oldInDst = strstr(dst, old); // overwrite old with new inside dst strcpy(oldInDst, new); return dst; }

If we run this on our example we get what we wanted:

char *dst = strReplace("My favorite language is Python", "Python", "C"); printf("%s\n", dst); // prints "My favorite language is C"

Awesome. So, we're done?

Let's try another example:

char *dst = strReplace("Python strings are easy to use", "Python", "C");

If we run this function and try to print what's in dst we get:

"C"

All we got was "C" instead of "C's strings are easy to use". What happened?

Let's take another look at the man pages:

$ man strcpy ... DESCRIPTION The stpcpy() and strcpy() functions copy the string src to dst (including the terminating `\0` character.)

When we copied new into dst, it copied the NUL terminator which ended our string early.

How can we get around this? If we keep reading the man pages:

$ man strcpy ... The stpncpy() and strncpy() functions copy at most len characters from src into dst. [If src is more than len characters long] dst is not terminated.

We can use this to make sure we don't copy the NUL terminator when copying over new:

char * strReplace(const char *src, const char *old, const char *new) { char *oldInDst = NULL; // allocate space for the new string char *dst = malloc(sizeof(char) * (strlen(src) + 1)); // +1 for NUL terminator assert(dst != NULL); // copy all of src into dst strcpy(dst, src); // find old inside dst oldInDst = strstr(dst, old); // overwrite old with new inside dst, don't include NUL terminator strncpy(oldInDst, new, strlen(new)); return dst; }

Now if we run the example above, we get:

"Cython's strings are easy to use"

Oops. That's not what we wanted!

Also we broke our original test: strReplace("My favorite language is Python", "Python", "C") now returns "My favorite language is Cython".

This is a good reminder to rerun all tests after making changes!

The issue is that new isn't the same length as old. This causes a couple problems:

  • We need to malloc more (or less) than src since we need more (or fewer) characters in dst
  • .
  • We can't copy all of src directly into dst because everything after new will be shifted.

Solving the first issue isn't too bad since we know how much we're taking out—strlen(old)—and adding in—strlen(new). Instead of:

char *dst = malloc(sizeof(char) * (strlen(src) + 1)); // +1 for NUL terminator

we would need:

size_t dstLen = strlen(src) - strlen(old) + strlen(new); char *dst = malloc(sizeof(char) * (dstLen + 1)); // +1 for NUL terminator

Solving the second issue is gonna take a bit more thought, so let's break it down.

  • Copy everything in src before old—let's call this prefix
  • Copy new at the end of prefix
  • Copy everything in src after old—let's call this suffix

We're gonna need to be really careful with our pointer arithmetic here—off by one errors can creep in just about anywhere. And it's easy to get lost in which string is going where, so we should add some helpful comments.

char * strReplace(const char *src, const char *old, const char *new) { size_t newLen = 0; char *srcSuffix = NULL; // get memory to hold dst size_t dstLen = strlen(src) - strlen(old) + strlen(new); char *dst = malloc(sizeof(char) * (dstLen + 1)); // +1 for NUL terminator char *dstOffset = dst; assert(dst != NULL); // copy src up to old (prefix) into dst char *oldInSrc = strstr(src, old); size_t prefixLen = oldInSrc - src; strncpy(dstOffset, src, prefixLen); dstOffset += prefixLen; // copy new into dst newLen = strlen(new); strncpy(dstOffset, new, newLen); dstOffset += newLen; // find suffix start in src srcSuffix = oldInSrc + strlen(old); // copy suffix into dst strcpy(dstOffset, srcSuffix); return dst; }

Now, if we call:

char *dst = strReplace("Python strings are easy to work with", "Python", "C");

and print dst we see:

"C strings are easy to work with"

Let's keep thinking about edge cases. What else might go wrong?

What happens if old isn't even in src?

We SEGFAULT! Why? Back to the man pages:

$ man strstr ... RETURN VALUES [...] if needle occurs nowhere in haystack, NULL is returned;

We never checked if we could write to oldInDst, we just blindly called strncpy on it.

Let's try to handle that a little more gracefully. Now might be a good time to ask the interviewer how they want it handled. You could:

  • Return a copy of src since nothing changed
  • Return NUL to let the caller know something unexpected might have happened

To keep things simple, let's just return NUL if old isn't in src:

char * strReplace(const char *src, const char *old, const char *new) { size_t dstLen = 0; size_t prefixLen = 0; size_t newLen = 0; char *dst = NULL; char *dstOffset = NULL; char *srcSuffix = NULL; // see if old inside src char *oldInSrc = strstr(src, old); if (oldInSrc == NULL) { return NULL; } // get memory to hold dst dstLen = strlen(src) - strlen(old) + strlen(new); dst = malloc(sizeof(char) * (dstLen + 1)); // +1 for NUL terminator dstOffset = dst; assert(dst != NULL); // copy src up to old (prefix) into dst prefixLen = oldInSrc - src; strncpy(dstOffset, src, prefixLen); dstOffset += prefixLen; // copy new into dst newLen = strlen(new); strncpy(dstOffset, new, newLen); dstOffset += newLen; // find suffix start in src srcSuffix = oldInSrc + strlen(old); // write suffix into dst strcpy(dstOffset, srcSuffix); return dst; }

Why move the check before the call to malloc? Not only would it waste time to malloc a bunch of space we don't use, but also we'd need to remember to free it so we don't leak memory.

Catchin' some static

What's static? When should you use it?

Your immediate response should be "Which static—global or local?"

In C, the keyword static gets used in two different ways, so you want to be sure you're talking about the right one! To cover our bases, let's explain both.

  • Global static

    At the global level, a variable or function can be declared static. Global static restricts the scope of that symbol to only that file. The main reason this is helpful is for hiding internal variables and functions that shouldn't be accessed by other parts of your code base.

    Let's look at some code to see how static helps. Say we're building up a library of C data structures and want to add LinkedListNode and DoublyLinkedListNode.

    In linkedList.h:

    struct LinkedListNode { struct LinkedListNode *next; int value; }; // Keep track of the start of the list struct LinkedListNode *root = NULL;

    And in doublyLinkedList.h:

    struct DoublyLinkedListNode { struct DoublyLinkedListNode *next; struct DoublyLinkedListNode *previous; int value; }; // Keep track of the start of the list struct DoublyLinkedListNode *root = NULL;

    Now we can try to use both these headers in the same file:

    #include "linkedList.h" #include "doublyLinkedList.h" int main(void) { return 0; }

    but when we try to compile, we get an error:

    error: redefinition of 'root' with a different type: 'struct DoublyLinkedListNode *' vs 'struct LinkedListNode *'

    Ok, that makes some sense—we defined root in both headers and then included both of them in main. What if we hide these away in .c files, shouldn't that keep them out of the way?

    In linkedList.h:

    struct LinkedListNode { struct LinkedListNode *next; int value; }

    and linkedList.c:

    #include "linkedList.h" struct LinkedListNode *root = NULL;

    Then in doublyLinkedList.h:

    struct DoublyLinkedListNode { struct DoublyLinkedListNode *next; struct DoublyLinkedListNode *previous; int value; }

    and doublyLinkedList.c:

    #include "doublyLinkedList.h" struct DoublyLinkedListNode *root = NULL;

    Finally, main.c:

    #include "linkedList.h" #include "doublyLinkedList.h" int main(void) { return 0; }

    Now when we compile, we get a different error:

    duplicate symbol root in: /foo/linkedList.o /foo/doublyLinkedList.o ld: 1 duplicate symbol error: linker command failed

    Even when they're hidden away inside .c files, all variable names get passed to the linker to be resolved. So, the linker got two different symbols with the same name: root.

    Here's where static comes in. Variables declared static can only be used inside their file. They can't clash with other variables in different files, even if those variables have the same name.

    All we have to do to get our code to work is add the static keyword to our declarations in the .c files. Like this:

    linkedList.c

    static struct LinkedListNode *root = NULL;

    and doublyLinkedList.c

    static struct DoublyLinkedListNode *root = NULL;

    Adding static at the file level hid our root variable from other files.

    With static, we can hide internal variables and functions, forcing other parts of our code base to interface with our file through exposed APIs. As long as our interfaces stay the same, we are free to change our implementation details (like what we called our root variable) without worrying about breaking other parts of our code base.

  • Local static

    Using static at the local level, inside a function, serves a completely different purpose than using it at the global level. Variables declared static inside functions are only initialized once and persist across calls.

    Normally when we declare a variable inside a function, it gets created each time the function is called. It gets added to the stack, used throughout the function, and discarded when the function ends.

    Just like regular local variables, local variables declared static can only be used inside that function. But unlike regular local variables, static local variables keep their value between function calls.

    Let's see how this works:

    void printCount() { static int count = 0; count++; printf("printCount() calls: %d\n", count); } int main(void) { printCount(); printCount(); }

    will print:

    "printCount() calls: 1" "printCount() calls: 2"

    Static variables aren't that common in functions ... most programmers usually use a global variable instead. If your global variable is only referenced in one function though, consider using a static local variable instead.

What's in a cake?

A cake by any other name would taste as sweet...

Now that we've gotten our icing calculations straightened out, our cake business is doing better than ever.

To keep track of all the cake orders we're getting, we've come up with our very own CakeTable data structure which tracks a cake's identification number and any other information (like who ordered it, any text in the icing).

Here's the interface we have so far:

/* Supply orderNumber and any data, which can be NULL */ void addCakeToTable( CakeTable *cakeTable, int orderNumber, void *cakeData ); /* Supply orderNumber, get pointer to cakeData, which can be NULL */ void * lookupCakeByOrderNumber( CakeTable *cakeTable, int orderNumber );

Next, we'd like to add a way to iterate through all of the cakes in our database. The design team specified that we need to get both the orderNumber and cakeData for each of the cakes as we're iterating through.

You've patiently explained that in C you can only return one value from a function, but they keep sending you sample code that looks like this.

while ( getNextCake(cakeTable, /* TODO */ ??? ) ) { // whatever we want to do with each cake }

What should our function declaration (not function definition) look like for getNextCake?

To get started, what can we fill in already from the sample code we got?

We definitely need to know which CakeTable we're working on. That's fine ... it looks like the design team has already filled that in as the first argument.

getNextCake( CakeTable *cakeTable );

What about the return type?

Looking back at the sample, the design team is using the return value to signal whether we're done or not. This makes sense—we don't know how many cakes we're iterating over, so we need to call getNextCake over and over until we've seen all of them. We can return 1 if there are more cakes to process (which continues the loop), and 0 when we're done (which breaks out of the loop).

int getNextCake( CakeTable *cakeTable );

Okay. What about the order number and cake data?

Here's where it starts to get a little tricky. Since we're in C we can't return more than one variable. But the bakeries want to know the orderNumber and the cakeData. How can we give them both pieces of information from just one function call?

One way to solve this is to use an input parameter that can be changed by getNextCake. To make the change "stick", we need to pass in a pointer to whatever variable we want filled in. That way, the function can set the value and whoever called the function will have the pointer to it. Here's what that would look like if we wanted to use orderNumber as an input/output argument:

int getNextCake( CakeTable *cakeTable, int *orderNumber );

And, let's do the same thing for cakeData.

int getNextCake( CakeTable *cakeTable, int *orderNumber, void **cakeData );

Whoa what's with void **? Why do we need two '*'s?

It's the same reason we needed int * and not int for orderNumber—we need to pass in a pointer to an int so getNextCake can change that int's value. With cakeData we need to pass in a pointer to a void * so we can change that void * to point to a new set of cake data.

Now we can return the orderNumber and the cakeData while using the actual return value to indicate when we're done looking at all the cakes. Score!

Littered Linked Lists

We've got some code that uses LinkedLists. And we just added a helper function to remove an item at a specified index. Problem is, we're getting weird behavior—sometimes the code works and sometimes it doesn't. Even worse, when we put in some debugging code, the problem seems to disappear.

Can you figure out what's going on and how to fix it?

We've got a pretty standard LinkedListNode implementation:

struct LinkedListNode { struct LinkedListNode *next; int value; }

and here's our code to delete nodes:

LinkedListNode * deleteNode(LinkedListNode *head, unsigned int index) { unsigned int i = 0; LinkedListNode *current = NULL; LinkedListNode *nodeToDelete = NULL; // special case if there's no linked list to begin with if (head == NULL) { return head; } // special case for removing head - need to return new head of linked list if (index == 0) { free(head); return head->next; } // walk the list until we get to node *before* the one we want to delete current = head; for (i = 0; i < (index - 1); i++) { // move to next node current = current->next; // if we hit the end of the list before index, just return head if (current->next == NULL) { return head; } } // make current->next point to the node after the one to delete nodeToDelete = current->next; current->next = nodeToDelete->next; // free memory we no longer need free(nodeToDelete); // head of the list didn't change return head; }

Code that works sometimes and breaks other times can be really nasty to debug because it's never clear if the issue got fixed or if it just happened to work correctly this time around.

Usually these sorts of bugs come up when we have race conditions between threads or we're accessing the wrong memory. Since we don't have any threads, let's look more closely at the memory.

There are a few common ways to access incorrect memory:

  • Uninitialized variables
  • Out of bounds
  • Freed memory

Let's look at each of these and see if they apply.

Uninitialized variables

There're only a few variables in deleteNode, so we should be able to tell pretty quickly if something is being used without being initialized:

  • head: The first thing the function does is check if head is NULL. So we're good there.
  • current: This gets set to head, which we know isn't NULL. And we only advance it after making sure next isn't NULL. So that's fine.
  • nodeToDelete: This gets set to current->next, which we know isn't NULL. So this is OK too.

Out of Bounds

We need to be careful whenever we have some sort of container like an array or LinkedListNode and we use an index to access elements. If our container isn't big enough for index, we need to make sure we don't use it.

Since index is an unsigned int we don't have to worry about negative numbers.

Let's look at the piece of code where we use index:

unsigned int i = 0; for (i = 0; i < (index - i); i++) { // move to next node current = current->next; // if we hit the end of the list before index, just return head if (current->next == NULL) { return head; } }

We always check to make sure current->next isn't NULL, since that would mean we hit the end of the list. The early return makes sure we never try to use current where it could be NULL. So we're OK there.

Freed memory

In C, we need to make sure never to use memory after we've called free on it since we can't make any guarantees about what's in those memory blocks anymore.

We use free twice in deleteNode so let's check both cases to see if we've used memory after we've freed it.

  • In the main block of code:

    LinkedListNode *nodeToDelete = current->next; current->next = nodeToDelete->next; free(nodeToDelete);

    Shis is fine because we know nodeToDelete won't be NULL. And we use nodeToDelete->next before we free it. And we never use nodeToDelete again. So everything here looks good.

  • In the special case where we need to return a new head:

    free(head); return head->next;

    Ah, there's an issue. We try to return head->next right after we free that memory.

Now that we've found the error, we should:

  • Understand why it caused buggy behavior
  • Fix it

Understanding it

Why did our code work sometimes but not other times? Why did it sometimes give incorrect values and sometimes SEGFAULT? Because we broke our promise to never use freed memory. Whenever we use free, we're saying "even though we still have this pointer, we promise not to use it anymore ever again".

It's considered good practice to set pointers to NULL right after freeing them (e.g.: free(head); head = NULL;). This ensures that if we try to dereference a pointer that's already been freed, we'll get a SEGFAULT, preventing the weird behavior where our code sometimes works and sometimes crashes.

Once we've called free, the C Runtime Library (which manages dynamically-allocated memory) knows it can use that block of memory however it wants. But there are no guarantees for what happens or even when.

  • Maybe the memory referenced by free(head) won't be touched between the time we call free and our access of head->next. In that case, everything works fine and we get a pointer to the new head.
  • Maybe the memory referenced by free(head) will be overwritten with zeros. Then, head->next would be NULL, and we'd lose track of the remaining nodes in the list.
  • Maybe the memory referenced by free(head) will be overwritten with data that makes head->next an invalid memory address. When we try to use it in the next iteration, we'll get a SEGFAULT.
  • Maybe the memory referenced by free(head) will be overwritten with data that makes head->next some random memory address. Now, we'll be corrupting our program's memory, which could cause a crash later on, in a completely different section of our code.

Which of those is going to happen is anybody's guess. It might depend on how many threads of the program are running or how much debug code is in there or what happened the last time the program was run.

Fixing it

Lucky for us, fixing this is simple. We did things right when we freed nodeToDelete. We just need to do that same process here: grab the data we need first, and then call free:

LinkedListNode *newHead = head->next; // grab new LinkedList head free(head); // free memory we don't need head = NULL; // make sure we don't accidentally use head later on return newHead;

Double the Fun

We've got an array of doubles—prices for all the different cakes around town. Instead of always having to pass around another variable that tells us the length of the array, we've used a 0.0 terminator to indicate the end of the array. We figured this would make things easier but we're running into some issues with one of our functions.

It should be a simple function that adds up the price of all the cakes:

double buyAllTheCakes( double *prices ) { double totalCost = 0.0; while ( *prices ) { totalCost += *prices; prices += sizeof(double); } return totalCost; }

But we aren't always getting the right answer when we call this function. The totalCost usually ends up way too low and we run out of money on our cake-buying spree. And sometimes we get an absurdly high totalCost. Like, impossibly high, because there's only 25 cakes in there and they shouldn't cost millions of dollars.

Can you figure out what's going wrong in buyAllTheCakes and how to fix it?

This is another case where we get different results depending on when and how the code is run. We talked about some of those issues in the Littered Linked Lists question above. Let's look at the same ones here:

  • Freed memory
  • Uninitialized variables
  • Out of bounds array indexing

We don't need to worry about freed memory because we aren't using free anywhere. And we don't need to worry about uninitialized variables because the only variable we have is totalCost and it's set to 0.0 when we declare it.

So maybe we're ending up outside of our array somehow. Or not looking at everything in the array? Is there any pattern to when it's too low or too high?

Let's add in some debugging code to print the cost of each cake as we add it to our total. Then we can run it on a few small examples and see if anything pops out.

Our updated function:

double buyAllTheCakes( double *prices ) { double totalCost = 0.0; while ( *prices ) { printf("Price: %f\n", *prices); totalCost += *prices; prices += sizeof(double); } return totalCost; }

and our test cases:

double oneCake[] = { 1.0, 0.0 }; double twoCakes[] = { 1.0, 2.0, 0.0 }; double fourCakes[] = { 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 0.0 }; double eightCakes[] = { 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 0.0 }; double sixteenCakes[] = { 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0, 12.0, 13.0, 14.0, 15.0, 16.0, 0.0 };

Now let's call buyAllTheCakes on all our test cases and see what we get:

oneCake: Price: 1.0 twoCakes: Price: 1.0 fourCakes: Price: 1.0 eightCakes: Price: 1.0 sixteenCakes: Price: 1.0 Price: 9.0

You may not get these exact same results if you try to run the code above. If you want to force those results, try padding out all the cake arrays with 0.0 to 10 or 20 and that should do the trick. To understand why, keep reading!

At first it seemed like we were skipping from the first element in the array to the end because we only saw 1.0. But that last test made things a bit more confusing because we saw two cakes ... one from the beginning and one from the middle.

If we keep expanding our tests, we'll start to see that it skips the same number of elements every time—8, from what we saw above. And depending on the size of our array, after printing every 8th item, it might continue past the end and that's where we start getting crazy values.

How are we jumping 8 spots in the array instead of moving just 1? All we do is call prices += sizeof(double);, what could go wrong?

Turns out, C is smarter than we gave it credit for. When we have a pointer to the start of an array, C does arithmetic on that pointer based on the type of the elements it points to and doesn't treat them like plain-old numbers.

So, if prices points to the first array element, then prices + 1 points to the second array element, prices + 2 points to the third element and so on. Think about how we would index into this array. If we wanted the first element, we'd use prices[0] and to get the next element we'd use prices[1] and not prices[ sizeof(double) ].

That explains how we kept skipping 8 elements at a time! When we wrote prices += sizeof(double); we moved forward sizeof(double) elements. And a double takes up 8 bytes!

All we need to change is how we advance our pointer—we want to move forward 1 element, not 8:

double buyAllTheCakes( double *prices ) { double totalCost = 0.0; while ( *prices ) { totalCost += *prices; // instead of: prices += sizeof(double); prices++; } return totalCost; }
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Write a function that finds the corresponding closing parenthesis given the position of an opening parenthesis in a string. keep reading »

Temperature Tracker »

Write code to continually track the max, min, mean, and mode as new numbers are inserted into a tracker class. keep reading »

Simulate 7-sided die »

Given a 5-sided die, make a 7-sided die. keep reading »

Word Cloud Data »

You're building a word cloud. Write a function to figure out how many times each word appears so we know how big to make each word in the cloud. keep reading »

Two Egg Problem »

A building has 100 floors. Figure out the highest floor an egg can be dropped from without breaking. keep reading »

Binary Search Tree Checker »

Write a function to check that a binary tree is a valid binary search tree. keep reading »

Reverse Words »

Write a function to reverse the word order of a string, in-place. It's to decipher a supersecret message and win the war. keep reading »

Permutation Palindrome »

Check if any permutation of an input string is a palindrome. keep reading »

Kth to Last Node in a Singly-Linked List »

Find the kth to last node in a singly-linked list. We'll start with a simple solution and move on to some clever tricks. keep reading »

Reverse A Linked List »

Write a function to reverse a linked list in-place. keep reading »

The Stolen Breakfast Drone »

In a beautiful Amazon utopia where breakfast is delivered by drones, one drone has gone missing. Write a function to figure out which one is missing. keep reading »

MillionGazillion »

I'm making a new search engine called MillionGazillion(tm), and I need help figuring out what data structures to use. keep reading »

The Cake Thief »

You've hit the motherload: the cake vault of the Queen of England. Figure out how much of each cake to carry out to maximize profit. keep reading »

2nd Largest Item in a Binary Search Tree »

Find the second largest element in a binary search tree. keep reading »

Largest Stack »

You've implemented a Stack class, but you want to access the largest element in your stack from time to time. Write an augmented LargestStack class. keep reading »

Delete Node »

Write a function to delete a node from a linked list. Turns out you can do it in constant time! keep reading »

Making Change »

Write a function that will replace your role as a cashier and make everyone rich or something. keep reading »

Reverse String in Place »

Write a function to reverse a string in-place. keep reading »

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