The XOR operation (or exclusive
or) takes two bits and returns 1
if exactly one of the bits
is 1. Otherwise, it
1 ^ 1 → 0
1 ^ 0 → 1
0 ^ 1 → 1
0 ^ 0 → 0
Think of it like a bag of chips where only one hand can fit in at
a time. If no one reaches for chips, no one gets chips, and if
both people reach for chips, they can't fit and no one gets chips
When performing XOR on two integers, the XOR operation is
calculated on each pair of bits (the two bits at the same index in
5 ^ 6 # gives 3
# At the bit level:
# 0101 (5)
# ^ 0110 (6)
# = 0011 (3)
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