Depth-first search (DFS) is a method for exploring a tree or graph. In a DFS, you go as deep as possible down one path before backing up and trying a different one.
Depth-first search is like walking through a corn maze. You explore one path, hit a dead end, and go back and try a different one.
Here's a how a DFS would traverse this tree, starting with the root:
We'd go down the first path we find until we hit a dead end:
Then we'd do the same thing again—go down a path until we hit a dead end:
Until we reach the end.
Depth-first search is often compared with breadth-first search.
- Depth-first search on a binary tree generally requires less memory than breadth-first.
- Depth-first search can be easily implemented with recursion.
- A DFS doesn't necessarily find the shortest path to a node, while breadth-first search does.
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