Greedy Algorithms

A greedy algorithm builds up a solution by choosing the option that looks the best at every step.

Say you're a cashier and need to give someone 67 cents (US) using as few coins as possible. How would you do it?

Whenever picking which coin to use, you'd take the highest-value coin you could. A quarter, another quarter, then a dime, a nickel, and finally two pennies. That's a greedy algorithm, because you're always greedily choosing the coin that covers the biggest portion of the remaining amount.

Some other places where a greedy algorithm gets you the best solution:

  • Looking for a minimum spanning tree in a graph? At each step, greedily pick the cheapest edge that reaches a new vertex.
  • Trying to fit as many overlapping meetings as possible in a conference room? At each step, schedule the meeting that ends earliest.

Careful: sometimes a greedy algorithm doesn't give you an optimal solution:

Validating that a greedy strategy always gets the best answer is tricky. Either prove that the answer produced by the greedy algorithm is as good as an optimal answer, or run through a rigorous set of test cases to convince your interviewer (and yourself) that its correct.

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